Check of signals on the ECM socket. Nissan Micra (since 2002 of release)
Service and to Nissan Micra car repairs (since 2002 of release)
1. Introduction
2. Governing bodies and operation receptions
3. Settings and routine maintenance of the car
4. Engine
5. Systems of cooling of the engine, heating, ventilation and air conditioning
6. A power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
7. Systems of electric equipment of the engine
7.1. Ignition and engine management systems
7.1.1. Main data and security measures
7.1.2. Search of malfunctions – the general information and preliminary checks
7.1.3. Check of the moment of ignition
7.1.4. Candles and ignition coils
7.1.5. Diagnostics of a control system by the engine
7.1.6. Check of signals on the ECM socket
7.2. Charge and start systems
8. Manual box of gear shifting and coupling
9. Automatic transmission
10. Power shafts, rotary fists and stupichny assemblies
11. Brake system
12. Suspension bracket and steering
13. Body
14. Onboard electric equipment
15. Electric equipment schemes
 







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7-1-6-proverka-signalov-na-razeme-ecm.html

7.1.6. Check of signals on the ECM socket

ECM socket contacts (from electroconducting)

Below conditions of check and suitably the signals removed from contacts of the ECM socket are given.
Contact Device Conditions Signal
1 ECM grounding The engine works at turns X/x Engine grounding
2 Heater post-catalytic lambda probe The heated-up engine works at turns no more than 3800 rpm 0 ÷ 1 In
The engine is switched off (ignition is included) or the engine works at turns above 3800 rpm 11 ÷ 14 In
3 Food of the relay of the activator of a butterfly valve Ignition is included 11 ÷ 14 In
4 (5) The butterfly valve activator in the closed (open) situation The engine is switched off, ignition is included, the pedal of gas is released, RKPP on the 1st transfer (AT in a mode "D")

Signal of the activator of a butterfly valve in a closed position (tension 0 ÷ 14 In)

Signal of the activator of a butterfly valve in open situation (tension
0 ÷ 14 In)

13 CKP sensor The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

CKP sensor signal on X/x (average tension 3 In)

The engine works for 2000 rpm

CKP sensor signal on 2000 rpm (average tension 3 In)

14 CKP sensor The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

CMP sensor signal on X/x (tension 1 ÷ 4 In)

The engine works for 2000 rpm

CMP sensor signal on 2000 rpm (tension 1 ÷ 4 In)

15 Detonation sensor The engine works at turns X/x About 2.5 In
16 Post-catalytic lambda probe The engine is heated-up and works at turns not above 3600 rpm 0 ÷ 1 In
19 Ø/m valve of management of an absorber purge The engine works at turns X/x

Signal Ý/m the valve of management of an absorber purge on X/x (tension 11 ÷ 14 In)

The engine works for 2000 rpm

Signal Ý/m the valve of management of an absorber purge on 2000 rpm (average tension 10 In)

22, 23, 41, 42 No. No. 3,1,4,2 injector respectively The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

Injector signal on X/x (tension 11 ÷ 14 In)

The engine is heated-up and works for 2000 rpm

Injector signal on 2000 rpm (tension 11 ÷ 14 In)

24 Heater dokatalitichesky lambda probe The engine is heated-up and works at turns not above 3600 rpm

The signal of a heater dokatalitichesky a lambda probe at turns is not higher than 3600 rpm (average tension 7 In)

The engine is heated-up and works at turns above 3600 rpm 11 ÷ 14 In
29/30 CMP//CKP sensor grounding The engine works at turns X/x About 0 In
34 IAT sensor The engine works 0 ÷ 4.8 In, depending on temperature
35 Dokatalitichesky lambda probe The engine is heated-up and works for 2000 rpm 0 ÷ 1 In (periodic change)
45 Food of sensors Ignition is included About 5 In
46/47 A food of the sensor of pressure of a coolant To/in//the TPS sensor Ignition is included About 5 In
49 TPS 1 sensor The engine is switched off, ignition is included, the pedal of gas is released//squeezed out, RKPP on the 1st transfer (AT in a mode "D") More than 0.36 In//less than 4.75 In
51 MAP sensor The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x About 1.5 In
The engine is heated-up and works for 2000 rpm About 1.2 In
54/56///57 Grounding of the sensor of a detonation//MAP//the sensor of pressure of a coolant To/in The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x About 0 In
60, 61, 79, 80 Ignition signal in the No. No. 3,1,4,2 cylinder respectively The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

Ignition signal on X/x (tension
0 ÷ 0.1 In)

The engine is heated-up and works for 2000 rpm

Ignition signal on 2000 rpm (tension
0 ÷ 0.2 In)

62 Ø/m valve of management of phases of inlet valves The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

Signal Ý/m the valve of management of phases of inlet valves on X/x (tension
11 ÷ 14 In)

At increase in turns of the heated-up engine to 2000 rpm

Signal Ý/m the valve of management of phases of inlet valves on 2000 rpm (tension
11 ÷ 14 In)

66 Grounding of TPS sensors The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x About 0 In
68 TPS 2 sensor The engine is switched off, ignition is included, the pedal of gas is released//squeezed out, RKPP on the 1st transfer (AT in a mode "D") Less than 4.75 In//more than 0.36 In
69 Sensor of pressure of a coolant The engine is heated-up and works; To/in and the fan of a heater are included 1 ÷ 4 In
72 ECT sensor The engine works 0 ÷ 4.8 In, depending on temperature
73/74/82/83 Grounding of the sensor of the APP1/APP2 ECT/lambda probe/sensor The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x About 0 In
85 Diagnostic socket Ignition is included, the scanner is disconnected 11 ÷ 14 In
86 Tire CAN Ignition is included 1.0 ÷ 2.5 In
90/91 APP1/APP2 sensor food Ignition is included About 5 In
92 Target signal of the TPS sensor (model with AT) The engine is switched off, ignition is included, AT in a mode "D", the pedal of gas is released//squeezed out About 0.5 In//4.2 In
94 Tire CAN Ignition is included 2.5 ÷ 4.0 In
98 APP 2 sensor The engine is switched off, ignition is included, the pedal of gas is released//squeezed out 0.3 ÷ 0.6 В/1.95 ÷ 2.4 2.4 IN
101 Д/В stoplights The pedal of a brake is released//squeezed out 0 IN//11 ÷ 14 IN
102 PNP sensor Ignition is included, AT in the situation "P" or "N" (RKPP in neutral situation) About 0 In
Ignition is included, transmission in other provisions 11 ÷14 B
103 Target signal of a tachometer (model with AT) The engine is heated-up and works at turns X/x

Target signal of a tachometer (model with AT) on X/x (tension 10 ÷ 11 In)

The engine works for 2000 rpm

Target signal of a tachometer (model with AT) on 2000 rpm (tension 10 ÷ 11 In)

104 Butterfly valve relay Ignition is switched off//included 11 ÷ 14 IN//0 ÷ 1 IN
106 APP 1 sensor The engine is switched off, ignition is included, the pedal of gas is released//squeezed out 0.6 ÷ 0.9 В/3.9 ÷ 4.7 4.7 IN
109 Ignition switch Ignition is switched off//included 0 IN//11 ÷ 14 IN
111 ECM relay During//through 5 with the ambassador of switching off of the engine (ignition is switched off) 0 ÷ 1 IN//11 ÷ 14 IN
113 Relay of the fuel pump During//through 1 with the ambassador of inclusion of ignition 0 ÷ 1 IN//11 ÷ 14 IN
115, 116 ECM grounding The engine works at turns X/x Engine grounding
119, 120 ECM food Ignition is included 11 ÷ 14 In
121 Reserve food of ECM Ignition is switched off 11 ÷ 14 In

The oscillograms displayed on the diagnostic Nissan device, are provided above. Under each oscillogram the price of division of a scale is specified.

Digital multimeters perfectly are suitable for check of the electric chains which were in a static condition, and also for fixing of slow changes of traced parameters. At carrying out the dynamic checks which are carried out on the working engine, and also at identification of the reasons of periodic failures by absolutely irreplaceable tool there is an oscillograph.

Some oscillographs allow to keep oscillograms in the built-in module of memory with the subsequent conclusion of results to the press or their copying to the digital carrier already in stationary conditions.

The oscillograph allows to observe periodic signals and to measure characteristics of rectangular impulses, and also levels of slowly changing tension. The oscillograph can be used for:

  • Identifications of failures of unstable character;
  • Checks of results of the made corrections;
  • Activity monitoring lambda probe;
  • The analysis of the signals developed a lambda probe, which deviation of parameters from norm is the unconditional certificate of violation of serviceability of functioning of a control system as a whole, - on the other hand, correctness of a form of impulses given out a lambda probe can serve as a reliable guarantee of absence of violations in a control system.

Reliability and simplicity of operation of modern oscillographs do not demand from the operator of special special knowledge and experience. Interpretation of received information can be easily made by a way of elementary visual comparison of the oscillograms removed during check with the temporary dependences given below typical for various sensors and actuation mechanisms of automobile control systems.

Parameters of periodic signals

Characteristics of any signal

Each signal removed by means of an oscillograph can be described by means of the following key parameters:

  • amplitude – a difference of the maximum and minimum tension (In) a signal within the period;
  • the period – duration of a cycle of a signal (ms);
  • frequency – quantity of cycles in a second (Hz);
  • width – duration of a rectangular impulse (ms, microsec);
  • porosity – the relation of the period of repetition to width (In foreign terminology return is applied porosity parameter called by the running cycle, expressed in %);
  • signal form – sequence of rectangular impulses, individual emissions, a sinusoid, sawtooth impulses, etc.

Usually characteristics of the faulty device strongly differ from reference that allows the operator easily and quickly visually to reveal the refused component.

Signals of a direct current – tension of a signal is analyzed only.

ECT sensor signal

IAT sensor

TPS sensor

Lambda probe

Signals of an alternating current – are analyzed amplitude, frequency and a signal form.

Sensor of detonations

The frequency modulated signals – are analyzed amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and width of periodic impulses.

Inductive CKP sensor

Inductive CMP sensor

Inductive VSS sensor

Sensors of turns and the provisions of shaft working at effect of the Hall

Optical sensors of turns and provision of shaft

Digital MAF and MAP sensors

The signals modulated on width of an impulse (ShIM) – are analyzed amplitude, frequency, a form of a signal and porosity of periodic impulses.

Fuel injector

Device of stabilization of turns X/x (IAC)

Primary winding of the coil of ignition

Ø/m valve of a purge of an adsorber of EVAP system

EVAP system valves

The form of a signal given out by an oscillograph depends on a set of various factors and can change considerably.

In a look told before starting replacement of a suspected component in case of discrepancy of a form of the removed diagnostic signal with the reference oscillogram, it is necessary to analyse the received result carefully.

Digital signal

Analog signal

Tension

Zero level of a reference signal cannot be considered as absolute basic value, – "zero" of a real signal depending on concrete parameters of a checked chain can appear shifted rather reference (see a range 1 on an illustration the Digital signal) within a certain admissible range (see a range 2 on an illustration the Digital signal and 1 on an illustration the Analog signal).

The full amplitude of a signal depends on supply voltage of a checked contour and also can vary rather reference value in certain limits (see a range 2 on an illustration the Digital signal and 2 on an illustration the Analog signal).

In chains of a direct current the amplitude of a signal is limited to supply voltage. As an example it is possible to give a chain of system of stabilization of turns of the idling (IAC) which alarm tension does not change in any way with change of turns of the engine.

In chains of an alternating current the amplitude of a signal already unequivocally depends on frequency of work of a source of a signal. So, the amplitude of the signal which is given out by the sensor of provision of a cranked shaft (CKP) will increase with increase of turns of the engine.

In a look told if the amplitude of a signal removed by means of an oscillograph appears excessively low or high (up to trimming of top levels), it is enough to switch only a working range of the device, having passed to the corresponding scale of measurement.

At check of chains with Ý/m management (for example, a control system of idling turns) at shutdown of a food tension throws (see 4 on an illustration the Digital signal) which can be ignored quietly in the analysis of results of measurement can be observed.

It is not necessary to worry also at emergence of such deformations of the oscillogram, as a skashivaniye of the lower part of the forward front of rectangular impulses (see values 5 on an illustration the Digital signal) if, of course, the fact of a vypolazhivaniye of the front is not a sign of violation of serviceability of functioning of a checked component.

Frequency

Frequency of repetition of alarm impulses depends on working frequency of a source of signals.

The form of a removed signal can be edited and brought to a look convenient for the analysis by switching on an oscillograph of scale of temporary development of the image.

At supervision of signals in chains of an alternating current temporary development of an oscillograph depends on frequency of a source of a signal (see a range 3 on an illustration the Analog signal), defined by engine turns.

As it was already told above, for reduction of a signal to a legible look it is enough to switch scale of temporary development of an oscillograph.

In certain cases characteristic changes of a signal appear developed specularly rather reference dependences that speaks a reversivnost of polarity of connection of the corresponding element and, in the absence of a ban on change of polarity of connection, can be ignored in the analysis.

Typical signals of components of control systems of the engine

Modern oscillographs are usually equipped with two alarm wires in a compartment with a set various щупов, allowing to carry out device connection practically to any device.

The red wire is connected to a positive pole of an oscillograph and is usually connected to the ECM plug. The black wire should be connected to reliably earthed point (weight).

Injectors

Management of structure of an air and fuel mix in modern automobile electronic systems of injection of fuel is carried out by timely correction of duration of opening of electromagnetic valves of injectors.

Duration of stay of injectors abroach is defined by duration of developed ECM of the electric impulses submitted on an entrance Ý/m of valves. Duration of impulses usually does not fall outside the limits a range of 1 ÷ 14 ms.

The typical oscillogram of the impulse operating operation of an injector, is presented on an illustration a fuel Injector. Often on the oscillogram it is possible to observe also a series of the short pulsations following directly an initiating negative rectangular impulse and supporting Ý/m the valve of an injector abroach, and also the sharp positive throw of tension accompanying the moment of closing of the valve.

Serviceability of functioning of ECM can be easily checked by means of an oscillograph by a way of visual supervision of changes of a form of an operating signal at a variation of working parameters of the engine. So, duration of impulses at an engine provorachivaniye on single turns should be slightly higher, than at operation of the unit on low turns. Increase of turns of the engine should be accompanied by respective increase in time of stay of injectors abroach. This dependence is especially well shown when opening butterfly valve by short pressing a gas pedal.

By means of thin щупа connect a red wire of an oscillograph to the injector ECM plug. Shchup of the second alarm wire (black) oscillograph reliably earth.

Analyse a form of the engine of a signal read out during a provorachivaniye.

Having started the engine, check a form of an operating signal on single turns.

Having sharply pressed a gas pedal, lift frequency of rotation of the engine to 3000 rpm, - duration of operating impulses at the moment of acceleration should increase considerably, with the subsequent stabilization at the level equal, or slightly smaller peculiar to idling turns.

Fast closing of a butterfly valve should lead to the flattening of the oscillogram confirming the fact of a perekryvaniye of injectors (for systems from otsechky supply of fuel).

At cold start the engine needs some enrichment of an air and fuel mix that is provided with automatic increase in duration of opening of injectors. In process of warming up duration of operating impulses on the oscillogram should be reduced continuously, gradually coming nearer to value typical for single turns.

In injection systems in which the injector of cold start is not applied, at cold start of the engine the additional operating impulses which are showing on the oscillogram in the form of pulsations of variable length are used.

In the table provided below typical dependence of duration of operating impulses of opening of injectors on a working condition of the engine is presented.

Engine condition

Duration of an operating impulse, ms

Single turns

1 ÷ 6

2000 ÷ 3000 rpm.

1 ÷ 6

Full gas

6÷ 35

Inductive sensors

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Start the engine and compare the oscillogram removed from an exit of the inductive sensor with reference, given on illustration.
  1. The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase in amplitude of a pulse signal developed by the sensor.

Lambda probe (the oxygen sensor)

The oscillograms typical for most often of used on cars a lambda probes of zirconic type in which basic tension of 0.5 Century is not used are provided in this subsection. Recently the increasing popularity is gained by titanic sensors, the working which range of a signal makes 0 ÷ 5 In, and high level of tension stands out at combustion of the grown poor mix, low, - enriched.


 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug a lambda probe on ECM and weight.
  2. Make sure that the engine is heated-up to normal working temperature.
  1. Compare the oscillogram displayed a measuring instrument with reference, given on an illustration.
  1. If the removed signal is not wavy, and represents linear dependence, that, depending on tension level, it testifies to excessive repauperization (0 ÷ 0.15 In), or reenrichment (0.6 ÷ 1 In) an air and fuel mix.
  2. If on single turns of the engine the normal wavy signal takes place, try to squeeze out sharply several times gas loops, - fluctuations of a signal should not fall outside the limits a range of 0 ÷ 1 Century.
  3. The increase in turns of the engine should be accompanied by increase of amplitude of a signal, reduction - decrease.

Ignition signal on an exit of the module of ignition

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the module of ignition on ECM and weight.
  2. Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.
  1. On the screen of an oscillograph the sequence of rectangular impulses of a direct current should stand out. Compare a form of an accepted signal with reference, paying close attention to coincidence of such parameters, as amplitude, frequency and a form of impulses.
  1. At increase in turns of the engine frequency of a signal should increase in direct ratio.

Primary winding of the coil of ignition

 PERFORMANCE ORDER

  1. Connect an oscillograph between the plug of the coil of ignition and weight.
  2. Warm up the engine to normal working temperature and leave it working at single turns.
  1. Compare a form of an accepted signal to the reference - positive throws of tension should have constant amplitude.
  1. Unevenness of throws can be caused by excessive resistance of a secondary winding, and also malfunction In/in coil wires.



7.1.5. Diagnostics of a control system by the engine

7.2. Charge and start systems