1.5. Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader can find references in the text of this Management. Following to it will make work of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way a workplace and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures.
Nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection of two or more details are called as fixture. At work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any fixture this or that type of kontryashchy and fixing adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or a fixing compound for a carving. All used carving fixture should be absolutely pure and equal, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for a rule obligatory replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts the new. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties.
Prirzhavevshiye for simplification of their otdavaniye and in order to avoid their damage should be processed bolts and nuts special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After wetting of the "become attached" fixture by getting structure before starting its otdavaniye, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down a chisel, to cut a hacksaw or to remove by means of special гайколома.
Carving connections, which are exposed to big differences of temperatures (for example, the EGR valve, a lambda probe, a final collector), tend to a privarivaniye that complicates dismantle at the following service. For simplification of an otdavaniye of such fixture grease it before a tightening Molycote 1000 30 20 971 or Never Seize greasing.
When cutting a head of a bolt or a hairpin oblamyvaniya on assembly, the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of the special tool. The majority metalwork and repair trucks can undertake performance of this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving openings), repair procedures.
At assembly it is necessary to establish flat and lock washers always into place in the same order and the same way, as earlier. The damaged washers always replace new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example, aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
Sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all wider and more widely apply metric fixture. However, it is important to know a difference between fixture of the SAE standard used sometimes (called also American) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts as the SAE standard, and metric, are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the bolt of SAE 1/2-13x1 has half-inch in diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length of 1 inch. Metric bolt M12-1.75x25 has diameter of 12 mm, a step of a carving of 1.75 mm and length of 25 mm. Both bolts are outwardly almost identical, however are not interchangeable.
In addition to the listed signs bolts can be identified by survey of their head. The distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in mm, whereas at a SAE standard bolt - in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As a result, the wrench on the SAE standard is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads of the most part of bolts of the SAE standard usually there are the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, the is higher admissible effort (on cars bolts with durability degree from 0 to 5 are usually applied).
Sizes and marking of a class of durability of bolts of the SAE and USS standards
Sizes and marking of a class of durability of metric bolts
The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code which is usually cast on a bolt head.
Marking of a class of durability of bolts (above - SAE and USS, below - metric)
Also on labels of a class of durability of a nut of the SAE standard it is possible to distinguish from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of durability of nuts of the SAE standard, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of besides figures. Than quantity of points more, or the value of a digital code is higher, the admissible effort of a tightening of a nut is higher.
Marking of a class of durability of standard six-sided nuts of the SAE and USS standards
Marking of a class of durability of metric six-sided nuts
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. Large hairpins are marked by a digital code whereas marking is put on smaller in the form of a geometrical figure.
Marking of a class of durability of metric hairpins
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a durability class from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of fixture of the SAE standard from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or sravnivany carvings with reference.
As the fixture of the same geometrical size can have various classes of durability, at replacement on the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to compliance of a class of durability of established new fixture to a class of durability of the old.
Procedure and order of a tightening of carving connections
The tightening of the most part of carving connections should be made with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, given in the beginning of each chapter of this Management (it is necessary to understand as effort of a tightening of fixture enclosed to it at a tightening a torque). The tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye conducts to unreliability of connection of interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on their material and diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible efforts of a tightening, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are provided in Specifications at the beginning of each chapter. For a tightening of the fixture which has not been mentioned in Specifications, it is necessary to use the card of the admissible moments of rotation given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows a tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that the tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) fixture in steel or cast (not aluminum) a detail is made.
Efforts of a tightening of metric carvings
||9 — 12 N • m
||19 — 28 N • m
||38 — 54 N • m
|| 68 — 96 N • m
||109 — 154 N • m
Efforts of a tightening of trumpet carvings
||7 — 10 N • m
||17 — 24 N • m
||30 — 44 N • m
||34 — 47 N • m
Efforts of a tightening of carvings of the SAE and USS standards
||7 — 10 N • m
||17 — 24 N • m
||30 — 44 N • m
||34 — 47 N • m
Any fixture located on a perimeter detail (such as bolts of fastening of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers), in order to avoid deformation of a detail it is necessary to give and be tightened in strictly certain order described in the corresponding heads of the Management. If this order is not stipulated, in order to avoid a curvature of a component it is necessary to adhere described below procedure. At the first stage tighten all bolts or nuts by hand. Then each element of fixture in turn hold on on one complete revolution, and transition from one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first to a bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half of turn. Continue to act in the same manner, tightening everyone a bolt/nut this time already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At a fixture otdavaniye also it is necessary to adhere to the described procedure, but operating upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at assembly it was possible to establish each detail on its former place and the correct image. Remember characteristics of appearance, in case of need make landing marking of the details which installation can be into place made ambiguously (to such elements the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft) belongs, for example. The arrangement of the removed details on a pure surface in that order in which their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography subject to dismantling or component removal.
At removal of fixture try to mark its initial situation on assembly. Often immediate installation of fixture and washers on a former place after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose, the box broken into marked sections, or it is simple on the separate marked capacities. Such line of action appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of a set of fine details, such as the generator, the klapanny mechanism, the dashboard or elements of a decorative covering of salon.
At separation of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to mark separate wires or electroconducting plaits by means of an insulating tape with the put on it digital or alphabetic code.
Prokladochnye of a surface
On all cars of laying are applied to sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leakages of oils and liquids and maintenance in elevated pressure or depression assembly.
Before installation it is required to cover usually such laying with a liquid or pastelike sealing compound. Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of to each other interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes an exigeant task. Dismantling of such knots is helped by an obstukivaniye them outside on perimeter of a place of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well a usual hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and fragile components. At emergence of such difficulties always first of all check, whether all fixture is removed. Try not to apply to division of details a screw-driver or mount, entering them between interfaced surfaces them thus it is easy to damage that further can be at the bottom of emergence of leaks. If a podrychazhivaniye of the "become attached" elements of assembly it is impossible to avoid, use for this purpose the wooden handle from an old smetka, but do not forget to remove carefully thus from interfaced surfaces and from within assembly all formed chips.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed out carefully, having scratched out from them a material of old laying. The hardened fragments of old laying can be softened previously by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical composition, and then to remove with a scraper. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end in this case can be used. Use for this purpose of copper tube is recommended, as copper is usually softer than materials applied in the car that reduces risk of damage of an interfaced surface. It is easily possible to remove some laying by means of a copper brush, however, it is not dependent on the applied method, interfaced surfaces should become absolutely pure and smooth. If for any reason the interfaced surface appeared scratched, before assembly of components fill scratch with prokladochny hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening or semi-stiffening hermetic.
Councils on removal of hoses
Do not disconnect from components of central air of air (To/in) any hoses until the system will not be discharged by the expert of a workshop of car-care center.
Precautionary measures which should be observed at removal of hoses, are very close to that at removal of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes which hoses as it can be at the bottom of emergence of leaks are put on. In a special measure it belongs to procedure of removal of hoses of system of cooling. Owing to various chemical reactions occurs "prikipany" rubbers of hoses to interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all weaken a collar of its fastening on the union. Then nippers with the sliding hinge seize a hose near a collar and start to rotate it on the union or a branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue this procedure before hose liberation, then remove a hose from the union. A small amount of silicone or other greasing will facilitate procedure if it can be entered into a gap between the union and a hose. For simplification of procedure of installation of a hose grease an internal surface of a hose and an external surface of the union.
As the last resort, or in case of unequivocal need of replacement of a hose, for removal from the union of the end of a hose it is possible to knife it. Thus try not to damage a knife metal of the union or a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a collar of fastening of a hose replace a collar. Collars of braided type usually weaken eventually therefore, regardless of their condition, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
The choice of the good tool is one of the main requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded set of tools, can seem too big, however at their sravnivaniye with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs on HUNDRED, will appear quite reasonable.
Below lists of three tool kits are provided. To the owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works, it is necessary to begin with performance of the procedures limited to use of tools from the first list, increasing thus the qualification and gradually expanding a range of the applied tool. In process of acquisition of experience it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, supplementing a tool kit available on hands. After a while the received skills will allow to start performance of more difficult works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and major maintenance of the car). When qualification will start to allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult remntny procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list provided below includes a minimum of procedures of routine maintenance necessary for performance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (with a usual rozhkovy head on one end and with cap on other) is recommended. Despite big cost of such set in comparison with cost of a set of usual rozhkovy keys, an expense will be justified, since these keys possess advantages of both types.
- Set of the combined keys from 8 to 19 mm
- Adjustable spanner (to 35 mm)
- Candle natural rubber insert (petrol models)
- The tool for adjustment of a candle gap (petrol models)
- Set measuring щупов
- Nippelny key for pumping of brakes
- With a flat sting (100 mm in length on 6 mm in diameter)
- With a krestovy sting (100 mm in length on 6 mm in diameter)
- The combined flat-nose pliers
- Hacksaw on metal with a set of cloths
- The pump for a rating of tires
- Manometer for pressure measurement in tires
- Lubricant gun (syringe)
- The canister under oil
- Fine-grained emery paper
- Wire brush
- The tool for cleaning of plugs and contacts of wires of the battery
- Key for removal of the oil filter
- Funnel (the average size)
- Props for car fixing in the lifted condition (2)
- Drain capacity
Tool kit for the general and major maintenance of the car
The tool listed below is required at carrying out repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. This list includes a complete set of replaceable face heads. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, - in particular in a combination with entering into a set of various type drives. Of 1/2 inches are recommended to use preferably drives section (instead of 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dinamometrichesky keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both such as drives). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
Set of replaceable face heads (including Torх type heads) or tubular keys, the sizes corresponding to the sizes of wrenches from the previous list
- Ratchet reversive drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
- Collar in length of 250 mm
- Kardanny drive (for use with replaceable face heads)
- Dinamometrichesky key (with a drive of the same size, as for replaceable face heads)
- Самоконтрящиеся nippers
- Hammer with round brisk (about 230 g)
- Hammer with soft brisk (plastic or rubber)
- With a flat sting (length of 150 mm and diameter about 6.5 mm)
- With a flat sting (strong mm No. 2, 8)
- With a krestovy sting (mm No. 3, 203)
- With a krestovy sting (strong No. 2)
- Clamping pincers
- Flat-nose pliers:
- For electricians (with the isolated handles)
- Uzkonosye (nippers)
- For lock rings (internal and external)
- Chisel on 25 mm
- Scraper (made of the copper tube flattened out and pointed from one end)
- Skrayber (chertilka)
- Center punch
- Small beards with a thin sting (1.6, 3.2, 4.8 mm)
- Set of shlangovy clips
- Set for pumping of brakes
- The set verified
- Steel line/measuring instrument of planeness
- Set of prutkovy keys-shestigrannikov (for heads with an internal shestigrannik)
- Set of files
- Wire brush (big)
- Second set of props
- Jack (hydraulic or foot type)
One more constantly required tool is the electrodrill with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set qualitative verified.
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at using of implementation of instructions of manufacturers of these tools get to this list. If the sphere of your activity does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be a bad investment of means. It is reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire in car-care center workshops.
Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on representation offices of firms are brought in the list. Sometimes in the text of the Management it is possible to find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method, allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case to avoid use of the special tool it is impossible, and its acquisition in using is problematic, performance of the corresponding works is better to entrust experts HUNDRED.
- The tool for compression of klapanny springs
- The tool for grinding in of valves
- The adaptation for pro-cleaning of flutes of piston rings
- The tool for a staving of piston rings
- The tool for installation of piston rings
- Measuring instrument of extent of compression of gases in cylinders (компрессиометр)
- Vertical drill for processing of edges of cylinders
- Hon for processing of mirrors of cylinders
- Measuring instrument of diameter of cylinders
- Micrometer and/or tsiferblatny calliper
- The tool for centering of a disk of coupling
- Stripper of spherical support
- Stripper of universal type
- Shock screw-driver
- Set of a tsiferblatny measuring instrument
- Stroboscope (with the inductive sensor)
- The manual combined pump (vacuum/delivery)
- Set of taps and lerok
- The tachometer/tool for measurement of duration of the closed condition of contacts of the breaker
- Universal tester for electric measurements
- Elevating rigging
- The tool for removal/installation of brake springs
- Telezhny jack
By preparation for carrying out procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of wide works to buy a set of the modern tool to which the tool box is usually applied more simply, more reliably and more economically. Further, for choice expansion, it is possible to buy in addition separate tools, additional sets and a tool box of the bigger size. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the unique source of acquisition of some special tools, but, irrespective of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. Expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool before combining it in a storage place, always carefully clear it of dirt, greasing and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered on a workplace. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage, etc. is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of working surfaces of the tool. The shock part quickly a hammer in the course of work is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose over time sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give a little time for removal расклепов and arrangement of cutting edges by means of an emery paper or a file. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve during very long term.
If carrying out more serious work, than simple routine maintenance is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform. The important requirement is roof or awning existence.
Whenever possible, any procedures of dismantling should be made on the pure flat workbench (table) of convenient height equipped with a vice. Existence of a vice with soft overlays for the sponges revealing to 100 mm is sufficient.
As it was already mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant liquids, cleaners, shpaklevka, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped.
As absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, therefore, the working platform should be equipped with the power supply for its connection.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure неворсящейся the rags, intended for cleaning of a working platform, the tool and car details.
Never make any works on the open painted surface of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.